Investment Markets

Price-to-Earnings Ratio – P/E Ratio

What Is Price-to-Earnings Ratio – P/E Ratio?

The price to earnings ratio is often called a P/E ratio. It is the ratio of the company’s stock price to the company’s earnings per share. It is a market prospect ratio which is useful in esteeming companies.

In simple words, its current share price relative to its per-share earnings (EPS). The price-to-earnings ratio is likewise sometimes known as the price multiple or the earnings multiple.

P/E ratios are used by investors and analysts to find the relative value of a firm’s shares in a price-to-price comparison.

It can likewise be used to compare a company against its own historical record or to compare aggregate markets against one another or over time.


As the P/E ratio is the most widely recognized measure of how expensive a stock is, it is essential to understand the premise and importance of its valuation.

The two most important components which structure the premise of this valuation is:

Market value per share and earnings per share

Alongside the above factors, this ratio can likewise fundamentally fluctuate depending upon the economic and market conditions.

The accompanying paragraphs will help you understand the importance of such an investigation through the P/E ratio recipe and figuring.

There are two essential kinds of this ratio are i.e. Market value of the stock and its relative earnings shows what the market is eager to pay for a stock based on its current earnings.

In this way, it is otherwise called the price multiple or the earnings multiple.

What are the investor’s expectations of Price to Earnings Ratio Value?

High P/E

Firms with significant expense earnings ratios are often considered to be development stocks. It means, investors have higher expectations for future earnings development and will pay more for them.

However, the disadvantage of high P/E is that development stocks are often unpredictable, and this puts a great deal of pressure on companies to accomplish more to legitimize their higher valuation.

Therefore, investing in development stocks will more likely be a dangerous investment. Likewise, in some cases, it can even be interpreted as an overpriced stock.

Low P/E

When the price-earnings ratio is low of a company then it is often considered to as undervalued stocks. This means the price of their stock is relatively little.

A company with a low P/E ratio is typically a sign of a weak current just as future performance. This would be a poor investment.

This lower pricing of stock pulls in investors to purchase their stock before the markets begin correcting. What’s more, when it does, investors make a profit because of the higher stock price.

Justified P/E

The justified P/E ratio is calculated independently of the standard P/E.

In simple words, the two ratios should produce two different results. On the off chance that the P/E is lower than the justified P/E ratio, then it means that the company is undervalued, and purchasing that stock will result in profits if the alpha is closed.

Advantage of Price to Earnings Ratio

  • Easy figure to calculate; readily available information for most stocks.
  • It helps investors rapidly estimate the value of a stock.
  • It helps investors compare a stock among other stocks, industries, indices, etc.
  • The share price to its earnings per share is related to P/E Ratio of a company.
  • A high P/E ratio could mean that a company’s stock is over-valued, or probably that investors are expecting high development rates in the future.
  • Companies that have no earnings or that are losing money don’t have a P/E ratio since there is nothing to put in the denominator.
  • The analysts are able to compute the reasonable value of the stocks.
  • Investors are able to investment decisions.
  • It would be an appropriate valuation measure for a technology firm.
  • These are relatively easy to use, are based on real market exchanges, and can provide a useful ballpark for estimating the value for investors.

Disadvantage of Price to Earnings Ratio

  • The ratio can be manipulated with varied bookkeeping practices
  • Not updated in real-time
  • It’s based on earnings figures from the past
  • The investors may often be led to believe that there is one single metric that will provide complete knowledge into an investment decision, which is basically never the case.
  • This is certainly not a reliable assumption.
  • Negative earnings per share; pose a challenge when it comes to computing their P/E.
  • It isn’t interpretable until a company becomes profitable for purposes of comparison.
  • High P/E is that development stocks are often unpredictable.

Recipe of P/E Ratio

When the company determines if the share price accurately reproduces the projected earnings per share then analysts and investors review that company’s P/E ratio.

Read|Ratio Analysis for share market investor

Example of Price to Earnings Ratio

Let’s calculate the P/E ratio of ABC Inc, as on March 31, 2020, when the company’s stock price closed at $50 billion. The company’s profit for the financial year ending March 31, 2020, was $20 billion, and its number of shares extraordinary was $4 billion.

Its, EPS  $20 billion/$4 billion = $5.

ABC Inc’s P/E ratio is,


As should be obvious, the ABC’s ratio is 10 times. This means investors will pay 10 dollars for every dollar of earnings. In other words, this stock is exchanging at a multiple of ten.

Since the current EPS was used in this figuring, this ratio would be considered a trailing price-earnings ratio.

In the event that a future predicted EPS was used, it would be considered a leading price to earnings ratio.

Interpretation and Analysis of P/E Ratio

Generally, the P/E ratio indicates how often earnings, the investors will pay for the share. The P/E ratio examination shows the direct relationship between the market price of the share of a company and its earnings.

Hence, if a company’s earnings per share rise; it leads to a rise in its market price, while lower earnings per share indicate a fall in its market price.

In this manner, these two factors for the most part define the real performance and development of a company.

Likewise, a company with a high P/E ratio is often considered to be development stocks.

This indicates higher earnings development, positive performance in the future, and investors are generally ready to pay more for this current company’s shares.

While then again, a company with a lower P/E ratio indicates poor current and future earnings development, the stock is undervalued, etc. Investing in such a company could prove to be a poor investment.

Note that companies with high P/E ratios are more likely to be considered as hazardous investments than those with lower ones.

It is because of the reason that a high P/E ratio signifies exclusive standards. This ratio is useful just in comparing companies in the same business.

Any such comparisons among companies of the different industries would provide an incorrect result and in this manner, would mislead the investors.

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